One and Respe!
I found the article and here it is in his own words. Please help us and save us from this madness. And thank goodness for our Africans idrens.
NATION IN CHAOS
An international protectorate could bring stability to Haiti
BY DON BOHNING
As Haiti descends deeper each day into anarchy, the time has come to consider some form of international protectorate to take temporary control of that beleaguered Caribbean country.
It is increasingly obvious that Haiti's current interim government, installed under U.S. tutelage following President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's Feb. 29 flight into exile, has neither the popular support nor the capacity to meet the challenge of the country's ongoing disintegration.
If Haiti is to continue as a functioning independent state, alternative options -- including a period of internatio
nal governance -- need to be seriously contemplated to stem nearly two decades of unremitting political, economic and social deterioration.
The history of such missions (called mandates, protectorates, trusteeships or, most recently, transitional administrations) has not been particularly auspicious, but it is clear that nothing else has succeeded in Haiti. As unpalatable as it may be for the vast majority of Haitians, who spent 1915 to 1934 under a U.S. Marine occupation, ceding temporary sovereignty to an international body is one option slowly gathering momentum.
`A predatory state'
An outside panel of academics, in a Nov. 8 hemisphere analysis prepared for -- although not necessarily reflecting the views of -- the Miami-based U.S. military's Southern Command, which includes Haiti in its area of responsibility, observed that the country ``is on the verge of an outward explosion of boat people and an inward immolation of gang-on-gang violence.''
The report's executive summar
y also notes: ``Haiti's violence is the consequence of a predatory state, a nonexistent political culture, economic collapse and ecological destruction. Long-term measures are necessary, to the point of considering Haiti for protectorate status under a Brazilian-led regional coalition, if one can be created that is willing to support a 10-year restoration initiative.''
Even some Haitians will tell you privately that protectorate status may be the only solution to the country's current morass, with the United Nations as the most likely -- although not the only -- candidate to undertake such a role. Counting the present U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti, the U.N. Security Council already has authorized nine special multinational missions to Haiti over the past decade, although none has had a mandate to administer the country.
Although not endorsing such a role, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in The Wall Street Journal two weeks after Aristide began his exile that ''Haiti is clearl
y unable to sort itself out, and the effect of leaving it alone would be continued or worsening chaos.'' Among the lessons learned from past U.N. missions, Annan added, is that ``there can be no quick exit. A long-term effort -- 10 years or more -- is needed to help rebuild the police and judiciary as well as basic social services such as healthcare and education.''
Ericq Pierre, a respected Haitian economist at the Inter American Development Bank, said in a recent paper that the presence of U.N. missions in Haiti, ''whether it is in the ambit of protection of human rights, or that of the organization of elections or for the maintaining of peace, always benefits the population.'' But, added Pierre, ``these missions have had to face three fundamental constraints: Their mandate has never been very precise, their terms have never been defined, their means of operation have always been very limited.''
The contemporary history of the protectorate concept dates to World War I with formation
of the League of Nations and creation of the mandate system to administer former colonies and territories of the German and Ottoman empires. It was succeeded after World War II by U.N. trusteeships to administer the world's remaining colonial territories, with the termination of Palau in 1994 as the last such entity.
The end of the Cold War gave birth to U.N.-sponsored transitional administrations to shepherd dysfunctional states back to viability. East Timor, Kosovo and Bosnia are among more-recent examples. Such a structure was considered for Liberia in 2003 but discarded at the last minute in favor of an indigenous national transition government. Apart from the United Nations, there was the U.S.-created and -run Coalition Provisional Authority, which governed Iraq for a year after the 2003 U.S. invasion.
Society is polarized
Obviously, the establishment of any form of multilateral or unilateral transitional administration for Haiti would have to overcome considerable antipathy from bo
th the international community and Haitians themselves, rightly proud of their status as the world's first black republic in 1804 and the Western Hemisphere's second independent nation.
More than 200 years later, Haitian society is polarized. Political violence is a staple of daily life, disrupting commercial and social activity. Individual and collective national security is nonexistent. The police force -- numbering less than 3,000 for a wild and rugged country with a population of more than eight million -- is understaffed and inefficient. Armed pro- and anti-Aristide gangs battle almost daily in the capital, while a pseudo-guerrilla force of ex-Haitian soldiers -- a significant factor in Aristide's departure -- independently controls much of the country.
On the verge of extinction
The economy is in ruins, battered by an accumulation of official mismanagement, corruption and incompetence, coupled with natural disasters that have left thousands dead and many more homeless, a byproduc
t of the years of ecological degradation. Gonaives, the country's third largest city, is on the verge of extinction, first from the ravages of armed conflict and then from the flood waters of Tropical Storm Jeanne. A provisional electoral council created by the interim government to prepare for new elections late next year is in disarray, with the elections themselves in jeopardy unless security improves.
''What is going on is literally insane,'' concluded Haitian human-rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, reflecting on the country's current situation in an interview earlier this month. ``It is what we call in philosophy a death march. If we can't stop this, we are looking at the destruction of the Haitian nation.''
Don Bohning reported on Haiti for The Miami Herald from the mid-1960s until 2000.