AIDS and racism under the cover of "science"

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jafrikayiti
Posts: 218
Joined: Fri Dec 29, 2006 7:16 pm

AIDS and racism under the cover of "science"

Post by jafrikayiti » Thu Nov 01, 2007 10:19 pm

The study published by Michael Worobey theorizing that AIDS left Africa for Haiti in the mid 1960-s and then stormed into the U.S. may turn out to be a very positive event both for the advancement of science and for unveiling just how pervasive white supremacist ideologies taint the modern scientific community.

Isn't it strange that Worobey's study hit the news the same week that James Watson, the aged Nobel laureate geneticist, allowed his mind to wonder so far as to not stopped his mouth from uttering what must have been in his head for so long: "Africans are genetically inferior to Europeans". While many, including no doubt, fellow racists in the scientific community, jumped in the band wagon condemning Watson, there is little evidence that the white supremacist ideas he expressed are a rarity in this milieu. In fact, as proven by the article below, Watson's racism is anything but sudden. He was at it as far back as 2000. So, many are certainly faking outrage as they pretend to be shocked by his October 2007 racist remarks:

http://www.mindfully.org/GE/James-Watso ... Sexist.htm



Indeed, to convinced themselves of the genetic superiority of their "race", we have seen many despiccable efforts deployed recently by white scientists from the most reputable schools of disciplines like archeology or computer modeling. Some have specialized in what I would term "virtual Michaeljacksonism" which turn the Black grandson of Queen Tiye, into a white-skinned boy lost in KMT, the land of OSIRIS - the land of the Blacks.

See The amazing transformation of the famous African Pharaoh Tuntankhamun:(Virtual Michael Jacksonism at its best!)
http://www.manuampim.com/2005_update.html

See Queen Tiye (Grandmother of King Tut):
http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/tiye.html

See OSIRIS (Le Grand Nègre)
http://www.hieroglyphen-info.de/bilder/ ... osiris.jpg
and
http://www.mps.mpg.de/images/projekte/r ... ris_xl.jpg

Worobey offers a great opportunity for everyone, Haitians in particular, to discover some very important information about the AIDS phenomenon but also about how deep seated racism still eats the hearts of the post-colonial world.

The fact that Worobey has often been called upon to try to quiet down or to discredit the Hooper theory about the (European) man-made origin of AIDS is perhaps not insignificant. See how, for instance, in this news report, Hooper is given a couple of lines and then Worobey is called in to dominate the rest of the article.

We also know how white leaders, including those hiding under the cover of science or humanism, gang up on President Thabo Mbeki who dares to lend an ear to the scientists who insist that the man-made theory deserve to be taken seriously.

African man of science and humanitarian Dr. Phillip Emeagwali wrote:

[quote]"Religion is based on faith, while science is based on fact and reason - and science is neutral to race. Unfortunately, scientists are not neutral to race.

Take, for example, the origin of AIDS, an international disease. According to scientific records, the first person to die from AIDS was a 25-year-old sailor named David Carr, of Manchester, England.

Carr died on August 31, 1959, and because the disease that killed him was then unknown, his tissue samples were saved for future analysis.

The “unknown disease” that killed David Carr was reported in The Lancet on October 29, 1960. On July 7, 1990, The Lancet retested those old tissue samples taken from David Carr and reconfirmed that he had died of AIDS."[/quote]
http://emeagwali.com/speeches/globaliza ... index.html

Quickly subsequent studies came to discredit this conclusion of a european origin for AIDS.

http://www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/180/53/

Obviously, unlike Britain, Haiti does not have the necessary army of scientists to conduct quick studies to escape the consequences of stigma associcated with such heavy accusations. So, Worobey's latest storm may cause more damage to Haiti than was ever suffered by Britain.

And, as we can see from the way the dominant media outlets treat information, it will be a while before truth and justice prevail. But, every now and again an honest voice is raised loud enough to remind us not to allow our brains to fall asleep and to remain vigilant. Paul Farmer's is one such voice:

Se AIDS and Accusations: Haiti and the Geography of Blame
http://www.ucpress.edu/books/sale/pages/2728001.html


[quote]There is a distinct difference in the way that different theories about the origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome have been treated, with the widely supported cut-hunter theory given relatively little scrutiny, while the oral polio vaccine theory has been subject to intense criticism. This difference in treatment cannot be explained as application of the scientific method. A better explanation is that the burden of proof is put on all contenders to the cut-hunter theory, giving it an unfair advantage, especially given that this assignment of the burden of proof appears to reflect non-scientific factors.[/quote]

Brian Martin in "The burden of proof and the origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome"
http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/ ... trslb.html


See also:
AID, AIDS, Experiments, Reparations and Red Herrings…
By Jafrikayiti, June 2001
http://www.windowsonhaiti.com/jafrik03.shtml

Other voices deserving to be heard, include:

Edward Hooper
http://www.aidsorigins.com/

Suppressed Science
http://www.suppressedscience.net/aids.html

Serge
Posts: 326
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2007 10:39 am

About the origins of AIDS

Post by Serge » Fri Nov 02, 2007 9:19 am

Here is another interesting article about the origins of AIDS.




The original URL of this article is:
www.africaspeaks.com/articles/2005/0512.html

The Gay Experiment That Started AIDS In America
by Alan Cantwell, M.D
December 05, 2005

There is no doubt that AIDS erupted in the U.S. shortly after government-sponsored hepatitis B vaccine experiments (1978-1981) using gay men as guinea pigs. The epidemic was caused by the "introduction" of a new retrovirus (the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV for short); and the introduction of a new herpes-8 virus, the virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma, widely known as the "gay cancer" of AIDS. The taboo theory that AIDS is a man-made disease is largely based on research showing an intimate connection between government vaccine experiments and the outbreak of "the gay plague"

The widely accepted theory is that HIV/AIDS originated in a monkey or chimpanzee virus that "jumped species" in Africa. However, it is clear that the first AIDS cases were recorded in gay men in Manhattan in 1979, a few years before the epidemic was first noticed in Africa in 1982. It is now claimed that the human herpes-8 virus (also called the KS virus), discovered in 1994, also originated when a primate herpes virus jumped species in Africa. How two African species-jumping viruses ended up exclusively in gay men in Manhattan beginning in the late 1970s has never been satisfactorily explained.

Researchers who claim AIDS is a man-made disease believe it is much more likely that these two primate viruses were introduced and spread during the government's recruitment of thousands of male homosexuals beginning in 1974.

Large numbers of gay men in Manhattan donated blood for the experimental hepatitis B vaccine trial, which took place at the New York Blood Center in Manhattan in 1978. Extensive evidence supporting the man-made theory of AIDS is easily found on the Internet by Googling: man-made origin of AIDS; and in my two books, "AIDS and the Doctors of Death" and "Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot."

Government interest in "gay health" before the AIDS epidemic

Beginning in the mid-1970s, government scientists became interested in the health of gay men, particularly in the realm of sexually-transmitted diseases, and specifically in the sexual transmission of the hepatitis B virus. The early 1970s was a time when large numbers of gays come out of the closet and identified themselves as homosexuals at government-sponsored health clinics. Organizations such as the Gay Men's Health Project were formed at this time. Promiscuous gays were avidly sought as volunteers to test the efficacy of a newly-developed hepatitis B vaccine manufactured by Merck and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

By 1977 over 13,000 Manhattan gays were screened to secure the final 1083 men who would serve as guinea pigs to test the hepatitis B vaccine. The vaccine was manufactured from the combined plasma of 30 highly selected gay men who carried the hepatitis B virus in their blood. Developed over a period of 65 weeks during 1977-1978 and tested for six months in chimpanzees (the primate in which HIV is thought to have originated), the first group of gay men were inoculated at the New York Blood Center in November 1978.

That same year a final cohort of 6875 homosexual men at the San Francisco City Clinic was assembled to study hepatitis B virus sexual transmission in that city. By the end of the decade gays in clinics in Los Angeles, Denver, Chicago, and St. Louis, also came under surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control. An additional 1402 volunteers were finally selected to participate in similar vaccine experiments in those cities beginning in March 1980.

Before 1978 there was no stored blood anywhere in the U.S. that tested positive for HIV or the KS virus. There were no cases of AIDS and no cases of "gay cancer" in young men. The first cases of AIDS appeared shortly after the experiment began in Manhattan. In June 1981 the epidemic became official and was quickly labeled the "gay ¬related immune deficiency syndrome", later known as AIDS.

The gay community was the most hated minority in America. After the experiments ended, the gay community was decimated by the "gay plague." In the first years of AIDS, the epidemic was largely ignored by the government (see Randy Shilt's best-seller, "And the Band Played On") and the disease was blamed on gay anal sex, drugs, and promiscuity. Gays were immediately labeled "high risk."

In my view, what made gay men "high risk" was the fact that they were the exclusive volunteers for government medical experiments that undoubtedly put them at "high risk." The evidence for this conclusion is outlined in this report. Further evidence can be obtained from abstracts of scientific reports available on the Internet at the PubMed website of the National Library of Medicine.

The gay hepatitis B experiments (1978-1981)

The experimental hepatitis B vaccine injected into gays was unlike any other vaccine previously made. As stated, it was developed in chimpanzees and manufactured in a year-long process of sterilization and purification of the pooled blood of 30 gay men who were hepatitis B virus carriers.

The final group of 1083 selected for the first experiment at the Blood Center were inoculated from November 1978 until October 1979. At one point, there was great concern that the vaccine might be contaminated. According to June Goodfield's Quest for the Killers, p 86, "This was no theoretical fear, contamination having been suspected in one batch made by the National Institutes of Health, though never in Merck's." Each gay man was given three inoculations of the vaccine over a period of three months. The vaccine proved successful with 96% of the men developing protective antibodies against the hepatitis B virus.

It has been assumed by some that these men might have been already immunosuppressed due to promiscuity and venereal disease. Although the young men in the study were indeed "promiscuous" (this was a requirement for entrance into the study), they were in excellent health. Despite many previous sexual partners, these volunteers had never been infected with the hepatitis B virus, which was a requirement for participation in the experiment. Furthermore, the 96% success rate would not have been accomplished if the men were immunosuppressed, because such people often do not respond to the vaccine.

When Robert Gallo's blood test for HIV became available in the mid-1980s, the New York Blood Center's stored gay blood specimens were reexamined. Most astonishing is the fact that 20% of the gay men who volunteered for the hepatitis B experiment in Manhattan were discovered to be HIV-positive in 1980 (one year before the AIDS epidemic became "official" in 1981). This signifies that Manhattan gays in 1980 had the highest incidence of HIV anywhere in the world, including Africa, the supposed birthplace of HIV and AIDS. In addition, we now know that one out of five gay men (20%) tested positive for the new KS herpes-8 virus in 1982 when stored blood samples from an AIDS trial in New York City were re-examined by epidemiologists at the NCI in 1999.

Never mentioned by AIDS historians is the fact that the New York Blood Center established a chimp virus laboratory for viral vaccine research in West Africa in 1974. One of the purposes of VILAB II, in Robertsfield, Liberia, was to develop the hepatitis B vaccine in chimps. The lab also prides itself by releasing "rehabilitated" (but virus-infected) chimps back into the wild, perhaps accounting for some of the ancestors of HIV and the KS virus found in the jungle by some government researchers.

The Virus Cancer Program and the birth of AIDS

In the decade before AIDS the Virus Cancer Program (1968-1980), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, attempted to prove that viruses caused human cancer. Ultimately the Program was unsuccessful in providing proof, yet it succeeded in building up the field of animal retrovirology, which led to a more complete understanding of how cancer-causing and immunosuppressive viruses in animals might cause disease in humans. The VCP was also the birthplace of genetic engineering, molecular biology, and the human genome project. As the VCP was winding down in the late 1970s, the gay experiments began in New York City.

The introduction of HIV and the KS herpes virus into gay men during this period (along with some "novel" and now-patented mycoplasmas discovered at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) miraculously revived the career of Robert Gallo and made him the most famous virologist in the world. And, of course, turned the "failure" of the VCP into a triumph by providing proof that these primate-derived viruses could cause disease in humans.

The fear of the hepatitis B vaccine

When AIDS began there were scattered reports in the medical journals questioning whether the "gay plague" might have its origin in the hepatitis B experiments. It was well-known in medical circles that the vaccine was made from the pooled plasma of gay men - and there was fear that the AIDS agent might be in the vaccine. As a result, when the hepatitis B commercial vaccine became available in July 1982, many people refused to be injected with it.

The fear of the vaccine was readily admitted by the CDC. Nevertheless, in detailed reports the CDC concluded that the vaccine was safe. Although it was clear the hepatitis B vaccine eliminated all "known" viruses, this obviously did not apply to "unknown" viruses at the time, such as HIV and the KS virus.

After HIV was discovered in 1984 some of the vaccine was retested and declared free of HIV. Of course, it was impossible to say whether the vaccine contained the KS virus, because this virus was undiscovered until 1994. I am unaware of any subsequent testing of the vaccine for this herpes KS virus.

Possible contamination problems with the hepatitis vaccine was the impetus that led Luc Montagnier to hunt for a virus in the new gay disease in the autumn of 1982. He began testing batches of human plasma for "reverse transcriptase activity", a biochemical sign indicating the possible presence of a retrovirus. (See page 46 of his book "Virus"). Montagnier's research eventually led to the first discovery of the AIDS virus at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

Although the CDC and the New York Blood Center claimed it was safe, many health professionals refused the hepatitis B vaccine. In 1985, only 23 out of 162 Rhode Island dentists agreed to take the vaccine because of concerns about AIDS. As late as 1990, 13 out of 14 black nurses at a university hospital refused to take the vaccine for the same reason.

The fate of the gay men in the gay experiments

The purpose of the gay experiments was to test a vaccine that could immunize people against hepatitis B virus. Infection with this virus could lead to severe liver disease and sometimes to liver cancer. Ironically, an unprecedented explosion of cancer took place in male homosexuals after the experiment. Reports of the fate of these men attest to the fact that participating in the government's experiments was clearly injurious to the health of gay men.

Significantly, there were no reported blood specimens anywhere in the U.S. that were HIV-positive prior to the epidemic in 1979, except in the samples stored at the NYBC.

In a May 12, 1983, letter to the editor of The New England Journal of Medicine, Cladd Stevens (who supervised the NYBC experiment) wrote : "No cases haves occurred in the vaccine recipients from populations at low risk of AIDS, and there is no excess incidence in the high-risk population." But this proved to be incorrect in later reports co-authored by Stevens.

In a 1985 report Cladd Stevens et al. claimed that seven men (out of 1083) were HIV-positive before they received either vaccine or placebo. If true, this indicates that HIV (and possibly the KS virus) was already present in the blood of Manhattan homosexuals and could have contaminated the pooled blood of gays whose plasma was used to make the vaccine in 1977.

As stated previously, a 1986 report in JAMA showed 20% of the men in the experiment were already infected with HIV by the end of 1981; and by 1984, more than 40% of the men were HIV-positive and doomed to death.

Another follow-up study of 8,906 gay men who donated blood for the hepatitis experiments in Manhattan was released in 1992. Statistical analysis of this group showed that mortality rates for men aged 25-44 began to rise in the 1980s, with AIDS the leading cause of death among young men in New York City. Remarkably, "The all-cause mortality in this cohort in 1988 was 24 times higher that the mortality rate in the cohort before the beginning of the AIDS epidemic."

Was the hepatitis B vaccine contaminated with HIV and the KS virus?

Largely forgotten in AIDS history is the hepatitis B vaccine trial that also took place with 685 gay Dutch volunteers in Amsterdam between November 1980 and December 1981. Unlike the American vaccine makers, the Dutch researchers heated their experimental hepatitis B vaccine for added safety.

A 1986 report of the trial clearly states the AIDS virus "was not transmitted by the heat inactivated hepatitis B vaccine." Of the 685 participants, five were already infected with HIV when the trial began. The researchers theorized that HIV entered the Dutch gay population at the end of the 1970s.

Another follow-up Dutch report of this trial in 1993 again suggests the efficacy of heating the vaccine for safety. (The experimental vaccine was not heated in the U.S. until after all the gay experiments were completed.) At the end of 1982, one year after the Dutch experiment had ended, only As stated previously, a 1986 report in JAMA showed 20% of the men in the experiment were already infected with HIV by the end of 1981; and by 1984, more than 40% of the men were HIV-positive and doomed to death.

7.5% of the Amsterdam men were infected. In contrast, 26.8% of the men in the New York experiment were HIV-positive; and a whopping 42.6% of the San Francisco men were HIV-positive. These statistics showing many men infected in the American trials in 1982 further prove that Cladd Stevens of the NYBC, and the CDC, were incorrect in declaring there was no excess incidence of AIDS in the "high-risk" gay male population.

The fate of all the men who participated in the hepatitis B vaccine trials in six U.S cities has never been revealed. However, it is likely from the statistics presented in JAMA in 1986 that many, if not most, of the men eventually died of AIDS. The actual number of AIDS deaths has never been revealed, nor have the individual medical records been studied. Attempts to secure this information have been rebuffed by the Blood Center, due to the "confidential" nature of the experiment.

"Gay Cancer" and the origin of AIDS

After the introduction of HIV and the KS virus into the U.S. gay male population in the late 1970s, the incidence of KS skyrocketed.

A 1989 report by Biggar found no cases of KS in young men in New York City during the years 1973-1976. But by 1985 the incidence of KS in "never-married men" in Manhattan had increased 1850 times. In San Francisco the rate of KS increased over 2000 times!

KS is now 20,000 times more common in AIDS patients than in the general population. A 1985 autopsy study by Lee Moskowitz of 52 AIDS cases (23 Haitians, 19 gays, 5 intravenous drug abusers, 2 hemophiliacs, and 3 persons at unknown risk) showed that 94% of AIDS patients from the various risk groups had internal KS. The CDC claims KS now occurs in only 15% of gay men (down from 30% at the beginning of the epidemic), but these statistics are not based on current autopsy studies.

KS was never a sexually-transmitted disease before the introduction of HIV into gays. For a century after the first reported KS cases were discovered in Vienna in 1872, there was no evidence that KS could be transmitted from person-to-person.

By 1950, a more aggressive "endemic" form of KS was uncovered in African blacks. Still, there was no evidence the disease was transmissible or contagious. Suddenly with the introduction of HIV into the homosexual community, scientists began to view KS as a contagious "gay cancer" out of Africa.

The new KS virus is closely related to a monkey tumor virus, known as herpes virus saimiri, that was extensively studied by researchers in the VCP in the decade before the epidemic. Initially found only in KS from AIDS patients, the new KS virus has also been found in non-AIDS-related KS tumors and in other forms of cancer, such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

HIV is a cancer-causing virus. Infection with HIV (with or without the KS virus) has resulted in a noticeable increase in various forms of cancer. A 2005 study of over 4000 AIDS patients showed higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease, when compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population.

The KS virus is now in the U.S. blood supply; and blood is not screened routinely for this virus. A 2001 study indicated that 15% of normal Texas blood donors showed evidence of KS virus infection in the blood. A 2002 study of healthy children (ages 4-13) in South Texas showed that 26% had antibodies to the KS virus in their blood.

Is AIDS a man-made disease?

How did these two viruses of primate origin get into the gay male population to cause AIDS and a contagious form of cancer? AIDS experts blame monkeys and chimps in the African jungle. My research indicates it is much more likely these viruses were introduced during government-sponsored hepatitis B experiments using gays as unsuspecting guinea pigs. Extensive documentation of past "secret medical experiments" by the government can be found on Google. A recent BBC news report (30 Nov 2004) uncovering unauthorized and dangerous HIV drug experiments on infants and children in New York City orphanages can be found by Googling: BBC + guinea pig kids.

Until proven otherwise, a "new" HIV retrovirus and a "new" KS virus could easily have been developed in a laboratory as part of the Virus Cancer Program. In the decade before AIDS it was common to transfer and adapt primate retroviruses and herpes viruses into human cells in genetic engineering experiments. Such viruses were deemed potential "candidate human viruses," as clearly stated in the annual progress reports of the VCP. For further details on the relationship of the VCP to the introduction of HIV, Google: virus cancer program + AIDS.

The connection between the hepatitis experiments and the AIDS epidemic was quickly dismissed by government authorities two decades ago. However, it is clear from a review of the scientific literature that the "gay plague" began immediately after the government experiments; and the experiments permanently damaged the health of the gay community, and led to continuing spread of HIV into the "general population."

Are we to believe that all this is merely a coincidence -and that AIDS in America resulted simply from two viruses jumping species in the African jungle? Or is the origin of HIV and AIDS -and the KS virus- related to secret medical research and covert human testing, as suggested here.

Dr. Alan Cantwell is a retired dermatologist; and the author of five books on the man-made origin of AIDS and the infectious origin of cancer, all published by Aries Rising Press, PO Box 29532, Los Angeles, CA 90029 (www.ariesrisingpress.com). Email: alancantwell@sbcglobal.net. Abstracts of 30 published papers can be found at the PubMed website. Many of his personal writings can be found on by typing in key words "alan cantwell" + articles. His latest book is Four Women Against Cancer: Bacteria, Cancer and the Origin of Life. His books are available on and through Book Clearing House @ 1-800-431-1579

References:

Cantwell A. AIDS and the Doctor of Death: An inquiry into the origin of the AIDS epidemic. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1988.

Cantwell A: Queer Blood: The secret AIDS genocide plot. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1993.

Miller M.KS enters Y2K still riddled with many questions. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Oct 6;91(19):1612-4.

Szmuness W. Large-scale efficacy trials of hepatitis B vaccines in the USA: baseline data and protocols. J Med Virol. 1979;4(4):327-40.

Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA, Oleszko WR, William DC, Sadovsky R, Morrison JM, Kellner. Hepatitis B vaccine: demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 9;303(15):833-41.

Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Zang EA, Harley EJ, Kellner A. A controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of the hepatitis B vaccine (Heptavax B): a final report. Hepatology. 1981 Sep-Oct;1(5):377-85.

Yacovone JA, Weisfeld J. Acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine by Rhode Island dental practitioners. J Am Dent Assoc. 1985 Jul;111(1):65-7.

Spence MR, Dash GP. Hepatitis B: perceptions, knowledge and vaccine acceptance among registered nurses in high-risk occupations in a university hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1990 Mar;11(3):129-33.

O'Brien TR, Kedes D, Ganem D, Macrae DR, Rosenberg PS, Molden J, Goedert JJ. Evidence for concurrent epidemics of human herpesvirus 8 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in US homosexual men: rates, risk factors, and relationship to Kaposi's sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 1999 Oct;180(4):1010-7.

Dollard SC, Nelson KE, Ness PM, Stambolis V, Kuehnert MJ, Pellett PE, Cannon MJ. Possible transmission of human herpesvirus-8 by blood transfusion in a historical United States cohort. Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):463-5.

Sacks HS, Rose DN, Chalmers TC. Should the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome deter hepatitis B vaccination? A decision analysis. JAMA. 1984 Dec 28;252(24):3375-7.

Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Zang EA, Morrison JM, Harley EJ, Rodriguez de Cordoba S, Bacino C, Ting RC, Bodner AJ, Sarngadharan MG, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City. JAMA. 1986 Apr 25;255(16):2167-72.

Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Rubinstein P, Ting RC, Bodner AJ, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC. Safety of the hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med. 1985 Feb 7;312(6):375-6.

van Griensven GJ, Hessol NA, Koblin BA, Byers RH, O'Malley PM, Albercht-van Lent N, Buchbinder SP, Taylor PE, Stevens CE, Coutinho RA. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection amonghomosexual men participating in hepatitis B vaccine trials in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978-1990. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr 15;137(8):909-15.

Biggar RJ, Burnett W, Mikl J, Nasca P. Cancer among New York men at risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J Cancer. 1989 Jun 15;43(6):979-85.

Moskowitz LB, Hensley GT, Gould EW, Weiss SD. Frequency and anatomic distribution of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy series. Hum Pathol. 1985 May;16(5):447-56.

Barahona H, Melendez LV, Hunt RD, Daniel MD. The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) as an animal model for viral diseases and oncologic studies. Lab Anim Sci. 1976 Dec;26(6 Pt 2):1104-12.

Koblin BA, Hessol NA, Zauber AG, Taylor PE, Buchbinder SP, Katz MH, Stevens CE. Increased incidence of cancer among homosexual men, New York City and San Francisco, 1978-1990. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Nov 15;144(10):916-23.

Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, Milazzo M, Wallace MR, Spooner K, Blazes DL, Agan BK, Armstrong A, Fraser S, Crum NF. Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer. 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1505-11.

Baillargeon J, Deng JH, Hettler E, Harrison C, Grady JJ, Korte LG, Alexander J, Montalvo E, Jenson HB, Gao SJ. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among blood donors from Texas. Ann Epidemiol. 2001 Oct;11(7):512-8.

Baillargeon J, Leach CT, Deng JH, Gao SJ, Jenson HB. High prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in south Texas children. J Med Virol. 2002 Aug;67(4):542-8.

jafrikayiti
Posts: 218
Joined: Fri Dec 29, 2006 7:16 pm

Post by jafrikayiti » Fri Nov 02, 2007 5:58 pm

See more debate on the topic here:

http://www.rense.com/general78/latest.htm

jafrikayiti
Posts: 218
Joined: Fri Dec 29, 2006 7:16 pm

Post by jafrikayiti » Fri Nov 02, 2007 7:59 pm

As mentioned in my text, Worobey is often called upon to help quiet down the Scientist and Researchers who propose that AIDS is a man-made disease.

Edward Hopper postulates that AIDS is not a purposely created disease, but one that came about accidentally. Others say that i was a deliberate action much like the Tuskeegee Sipphilis Experiments - which the U.S. Government denied for the longest time, but finally admitted.

So, here is a link to how Hooper sees Worobey's work and how an interested sector of the mainstream media like to prop up his studies...in a very strategic manner.

See http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/ ... futec.html

[quote]
Why the Worobey/Hahn "refutation" of OPV/AIDS theory is wrong, and a warning about dishonest tactics used by opponents of the theory

Edward Hooper



This item is part of a collection of material on
Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS

which in turn is part of Brian Martin's website on suppression of dissent.


The latest alleged refutation of the OPV theory is not a refutation at all, not least because it is based around a false premise.

It features in a "brief communication" in Nature magazine by Michael Worobey, Beatrice Hahn and others, entitled: "Contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted". [Nature; 2004; Vol. 428; p. 820.] The title alone reveals that the intention of the article is not to provide new and relevant information about the early history of HIV-1, but to attempt to refute a theory that medical scientists find uncomfortable - namely that members of their own profession may unwittingly have started the AIDS pandemic.

Nature has a long history of bias against this theory. Worobey's article was given substantial advance publicity on Nature's web-site, and it is apparently no coincidence that it was published the day before the broadcast of a revelatory 90-minute documentary, "The Origins of AIDS", on the French government channel, France2.

This pre-emptive publicity was to an extent successful, because it distracted many members of the French press from the evidence presented in the MFP/Galafilm documentary.

In a nutshell, this is that in the late 1950s, scientists working at the medical laboratory of Stanleyville [Kisangani], and at the nearby chimpanzee camp at Lindi, prepared a unique version of CHAT (an experimental oral polio vaccine, OPV) in the cells and sera of chimpanzees, the species that is host to the direct ancestor to HIV-1. This vaccine was later fed to approximately a million persons in the DRC, Burundi and Rwanda, in the same towns and villages which later saw the first emergence of HIV-1 and AIDS.

Why the "refutation" is false

There are three main reasons why the alleged refutation by Worobey and Hahn is false:

(a) chimps used in the OPV experiments came from an area of 300,000 square miles, and not just from "the vicinity of Stanleyville";

(b) some of the chimps used in the OPV experiments came from an area where Pan troglodytes troglodytes (the chimp subspecies which Hahn and Worobey claim to be the only host to the ancestor of HIV-1) are found;

(c) it is likely that HIV-1 arose through recombination between different chimp SIVs.



a) The geographical source of the chimps used in the OPV work.

The first paragraph of Worobey's article states that: "The ‘OPV/AIDS theory' claims that chimpanzees from the vicinity of Stanleyville - now Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] - were the source of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) that was transmitted to humans when chimpanzee tissues were allegedly used in the preparation of OPV."

The second part of this statement is true. The first part of the statement is not true and is, I believe, deliberately misleading.

The 600-odd chimpanzees that were held at Lindi camp, and which were used in the OPV experiments, were not just collected from around Stanleyville/Kisangani, but from an area of over 300,000 square miles of rain forest covering much of northern DRC, extending almost to Uganda in the east, and to the borders of Central African Republic and Sudan in the north. Nobody has yet reported any results of SIV testing of chimps from those regions.

The latest Worobey/Hahn claims actually centre on the observation that an SIV sequence obtained from "the vicinity of Kisangani" (actually from the Parisi forest, 130 kilometres to the south-east - an area which is not known to have provided chimps for the OPV work), clusters with other sequences of SIV from the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (Pts) subspecies that is found in the DRC.

Hahn and Worobey contend that Pts SIVs are not as closely related to the human pandemic virus, HIV-1, as the SIVs from Pan troglodytes troglodytes (Ptt) chimps, found in Cameroon, Gabon and Congo Brazzaville.

On the basis of the relatively little sampling that has been done, this statement is true. However, the hypothesis is far from proven. Many geneticists feel it is far too early to make such sweeping claims, when no chimp SIV sequences from (for instance) northern DRC, or Congo Brazzaville, have yet been reported.

It may well be that some Pts SIV sequences are as close to HIV-1 as the Ptt SIV sequences. Or indeed, even closer.

b) The probability that Ptt chimps were also present at Lindi.

But even if we assume that the Hahn/Worobey hypothesis is right, and that the SIV of Ptt chimps is the only true ancestor of HIV-1, this still does not refute the OPV theory. This is because testimonial and documentary evidence indicates a high probability that at least some of the chimps held at Lindi camp were Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

Several sources (including the late Gilbert Rollais, who coordinated the Lindi captures) have confirmed that some of the 600-odd Lindi chimps were bought locally from Africans.

In the last two months I have interviewed (a) a journalist who worked in Stanleyville throughout the fifties and who visited Lindi camp on several occasions, and (b) the Swiss chimpanzee expert Karl Ammann, who twice travelled up and down the Congo river on ferries in the 1980s. Both men testified that they had frequently witnessed chimps being brought up-river by ferry for sale in Stanleyville/Kisangani, and that some may well have been Ptt. Ammann e-mailed me that: "On each occasion there were chimps that came on [to the ferry] around Mbandaka and Bumba, and there is no reason why chimps would not come on board from the other side of the river, the other Congo, which of course would be Ptt." [A large part of Mbandaka territoire, formerly Coquilhatville, faces Congo Brazzaville, which is part of the Ptt range, across the Congo river.]

There are records available for only a small subset of 54 (less than 10%) of the Lindi chimps, which indicate that two animals came from Stanleyville zoo (original source unknown), and one from Coquilhatville territoire. This latter animal (No. 98) survived at Lindi camp for the unusually long period of at least two years (from April 1957 to April 1959). No. 98 was not a pygmy chimp or bonobo (Pan paniscus), the only other species held at Lindi, because it is well-documented that all the bonobos had been "used up" in experiments before 1959. Clearly, therefore, chimp #98 could have been a Pan troglodytes troglodytes, rather than a Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii.

The genetic differences between Ptt and Pts are minimal (and there is a growing argument that they should be classified as a single species). A key point is that without knowing the precise source, nobody would be able to distinguish reliably between troglodytes and schweinfurthii once the chimp had arrived at Lindi.

When I told Robin Weiss, a leading opponent of the OPV theory, about the Coquilhatville chimp at a lunch attended by a dozen scientists (after the Lincei conference on "Origin of HIV and Emerging Persistent Viruses" in September 2001), he conceded that the presence of a single troglodytes chimp at Lindi would "dispose of" this argument against the OPV theory.

Professor Weiss may be biased in what he has written about the origins of AIDS in the last four years, but he knows that chimps at Lindi were routinely co-caged and group-caged, meaning that if even a single SIV-infected troglodytes was present at the camp, then this virus (Hahn's designated ancestral AIDS virus) could have spread extensively between animals, and that different viral variants could have ended up in the OPV that was prepared from their tissues and serum.

Yet now we have Nature (a magazine over which Robin Weiss exerts enormous influence in terms of AIDS coverage) claiming that this same old Ptt/Pts argument "refutes" the theory.

c) The role of recombination.

However, the OPV/AIDS theory is not dependent on an SIV-infected Ptt chimp (or chimps) being present at Lindi camp.

Although it is now generally accepted that the HIV-1 ancestor must have been a chimpanzee SIV, there are substantial variations in the SIV sequences found in different chimp troupes.

The chimp SIVs from Cameroon and Gabon favoured by Hahn and Worobey as the ancestral source of pandemic HIV-1 actually have only about 80% homology with HIV-1. (By contrast, the sooty mangabey SIV that is the parent of HIV-2 is almost identical to some variants of the human virus.)

One possible explanation for the rather large 20% genetic "gap" between Ptt SIV and HIV-1 may be simply that the specific group of chimps bearing the ancestral virus (whether Ptt or Pts) has not yet been sampled.

But another possible explanation is that HIV-1 evolved as a result of recombination between two different chimp SIVs (whether Ptt or Pts). Clearly this could have happened during the co-caging or group caging at Lindi camp. Alternatively, it could have happened when two different chimp SIVs recombined in one of the tissue cultures (containing chimp cells and chimp sera) that were used to grow CHAT vaccine at the Laboratoire Medicale de Stanleyville.

If such recombination occurred at an early stage of the evolution of HIV-1, it would not be detectable by phylogenetic analysis.

Biased reporting

The foregoing indicates that this latest "refutation" of the OPV/AIDS theory is innately flawed.

This is only the latest in a long line of unscientific claims about the origins of AIDS that have appeared in the pages of those august journals Nature and Science, and is no more convincing that its predecessors.

Neither journal has ever published any article supporting, or expounding, the OPV/AIDS theory. Yet since 1992 they have published a series of flawed refutations, including a set of co-ordinated articles and commentaries in April 2001 which variously asserted that the OPV theory had been "destroyed", and had "died its final death". Three years later, it is apparent that those claims were not just premature, but erroneous.

In private and in "unattributable" conversations, two of the leading OPV sceptics have admitted that the OPV/AIDS theory is plausible and possible, but that they will never state this publicly unless there is incontrovertible evidence to support it. What these men actually do in public, however, is rather different, and deeply cynical. They assert that the theory has been refuted, even when they know that this is not so.

The worry about this (and about the many other misrepresentation and, indeed, lies that have been reported and told by those who are most actively opposed to the OPV theory) is that the dishonest science might carry over into other areas.

Concern about possible faking of an ancient HIV-1 sample

Of particular concern is the recent confirmation that ancient autopsy samples (slides and paraffin blocks from the years 1955-1958) from the basement of the old medical laboratory in Stanleyville (where the OPV experiments were based), were obtained about a year ago by a team of senior Belgian and American scientists led by Dr Stanley Plotkin.

In the late fifties, Plotkin was principal assistant to Dr Hilary Koprowski on the development and testing of CHAT vaccine, including the experimental programme in the Belgian Congo/DRC.

More recently, his support team of scientists has been active in persuading some of those witnesses who had earlier given significant testimony to me to either retract or modify their statements. In several instances, I have evidence of inappropriate pressures being placed on witnesses by members of Plotkin's team, including attempts to badger a witness into signing a pre-typed statement that was untrue in several respects.

It is known that the Plotkin group has put considerable time, effort and money into obtaining the 1950s Stanleyville samples. Indeed, on one occasion in 2001, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a Belgian collaborator to misappropriate several hundred of the slides.

The news that they have been successful is worrying, because in no respect can the Plotkin group be considered "independent testers" of these important biomedical materials.

The Plotkins have kept their acquisition of these samples a secret. I only came to learn that they had acquired them because I recently met a Belgian professor who had played some role in helping the Plotkins in their early research. He expressed surprise and some concern that they had reported nothing of their findings.

It is believed that some of these samples (from after the start of the OPV trials) may well contain genuine evidence of early HIV-1.

The concern here is not just that an early HIV-positive sample from this era might end up unreported.

It is that an HIV-positive sample from Stanleyville in 1957 might somehow end up misfiled with another group of samples from, say, Brazzaville in 1951, ie from before the time of the OPV trials.

If such a sample were subsequently to be tested in good faith by an independent researcher, then it might subsequently be proclaimed as yet another "disproof" (indeed, as "a final and incontrovertible disproof") of the OPV/AIDS theory.

Edward Hooper. May 1st, 2004

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